In turn, a tremendous amount of elevator power would be needed for tail-low touchdown. The surprise in the bulletin was found in the first sentence stating reports had been received of cracks found in spar caps. If the information about crack growth learned from research on the 210 spar cap is applicable to the 177, then frequent visual inspections should locate any safety concerns well before ultimate failure is reached. The FAA is requesting feedback from any owner/operators who has experience with the issues detailed in the Airworthiness Concern Sheets. Lycoming had a perfect candidate. The next obstacle was that because a cantilever wing is inherently heavier than a strut-braced wing, it normally requires a heavier main spar. As nearly every airplane took off from Cessna’s Delivery Center, it popped into the air, then dipped back toward the runway and continued to porpoise over the horizon toward an uncertain fate. While the fixed-gear 177 suffered through another 10 years of mediocre sales, the retractable version (RG) may actually have made the whole program worthwhile. However Cessna’s marketing department insisted on keeping the 172 in production, so the 177 designator was born. © Copyright 2020 - Tennessee Aircraft Services, Inc.. The RG was first flown in February 1970 and went to market as a ’71 model. According to Cessna, the reason for the mandatory service bulletin is because the carry-thru spar can develop corrosion and cracks. The only special tools involved are a flashlight and a mirror. At the same time, it appeared that higher cruising speeds could be achieved by eliminating the wing struts then in use on all Cessna singles. A quick search of the FAA list of defect reports doesn’t show any reports of Cardinal wing problems, of any kind. Designed in the mid-1960s the 177 featured newer technology such as a cantilever wing with a laminar flow airfoil. Delete cookies, By using our website, you agree to our use of cookies. The surprise in the bulletin was found in the first sentence stating reports had been received of cracks found in spar caps. The 177 featured a 150 horsepower Lycoming O-320 four-cylinder engine with a gross weight of 2,350 pounds. Textron published SEL-57-06 and SEL-57-07 on June 26, 2019, to address the possible failure of the carry through spar that’s mounted in the overhead area of the cabin on cantilever wing Cessna 210 and 177 series aircraft. Overnight, the 172J became the 177 Cardinal and the 172 continued its charmed life as the 172I. Controller.com listed 17 from $50,000 to A quick search of the FAA list of defect reports doesn’t show any reports of Cardinal wing problems, of any kind. Next, the wing was moved 4½ inches aft for better visibility, but that created a nose-heavy condition and stability problems, the solution of which was a higher-dihedral wing. The Cessna 177 is the only production high-wing single-engined Cessna since the Cessna 190/195 series to have both fixed landing gear and a cantilever wing without strut bracing. Cessna was able to breach the problem (at great expense) by machining a tapered spar. Then with an inspired expression, he presented Plan B. ft. was added to the horizontal tail (a fully articulated tail had been considered, but was abandoned after testing). The key is to be sure someone looks. Eventually, an imbalance can occur. The biggest problem showed up in an accelerated 1,000-hour service test, which included 5,000 landings flown by a number of pilots of different experience levels, and engineers found out that many were approaching with excessive speed and over-controlling and porpoising in the landing flare, often resulting in nosewheel landings and wrinkled firewalls. A stabilator replacement program ensued, whereby a unit with leading edge slots was installed to increase landing authority, but the damage had been done. The 177 Cardinal was developed to replace the 172 Skyhawk. The final aircraft in the 177 line was the retractable-gear 177RG Cardinal RG, which Cessna began producing in 1971 as a direct competitor to the Piper PA-28-200R Cherokee Arrow and Beechcraft Sierra. As changes and improvements were made, the weight of the prototype began to grow. There were two very long cracks found visually and three smaller cracks found using eddy current methods. Dealers still trusted the 172I, however. I had a 177 (Cardinal) RG for a while and it served well. Cessna was so confident that it ordered 2,000 four-cylinder, 150 hp O-320s before the 172J flight testing was finished, and they took an option on 2,000 more: there was much joy in Williamsport. The Cessna 177 Cardinal RG is a single engine aircraft made by Cessna Aircraft Company of Wichita, KS, also a Textron Inc. company, from 1971 through 1978. We were able to get his problem resolved without replacing the spar, but since then we have heard of a couple airplanes where the spar carrythrough twas replaced and a few others others that were close to having a problem. The Cardinal story begins with a plot as optimistic as a bird in springtime. It's the mid-1960s, glory years in civil aviation. Dozens of other compromises had to be made before it was test flown in mid-1965. Special guest Colin (my Dad) talks us through the basics of getting into the air with his Cessna 177 Cardinal. The aircraft is the only high-wing single-engined Cessna to have both fixed landing gear and a cantilever wing without strut bracing since the Cessna 190 and 195. Data showed extraordinarily low drag coefficients if precise wing smoothness could be achieved. View and Download Cessna 177 SERIES service manual online. The topic had already been discussed and the motives questioned over lunch pails among the rank and file—who obviously didn’t understand the intricate overview afforded those behind the ivy-covered walls, but nonetheless, a period of extremely uncomfortable silence ensued. During a recent inspection of a Cessna Model F177RG airplane, two cracks … It accumulated 4600 hours of the 8900 in this operation, which adds up to about 660 hours per year bouncing around at low altitudes. I have an issue with the Cessna retraction system. World-wide, the Cessna Dealer Organization backed by the Cessna Service Department stands ready to serve you. The Cardinal’s fate was sealed the first time the first dealer struggled off the ground on that 90-degree day in Wichita and porpoised over the horizon. Next annual… In reaction to customer demand and a desire for higher performance, Cessna engineers had become intrigued with the NACA series of laminar flow airfoils. Yet, sadly, the Cardinal is a poster child for why innovation and audacity in general aviation development has often met dismal results in the market. Email: EmailemailProtector.addCloakedMailto("ep_84d82768", 1); Cessna Flyer Association © 2004-2020 All Rights Reserved. One cure was reduction in wing skin thickness (which some wags were already referring to as Spearmint gum wrapper) and shaving excess thickness of other parts. Time was running out. That’s not exactly how it happened, but that is what they did. The economy is strong, gas is cheap, and a surfeit of pilots from World War II and the Korean War are finding happiness in peacetime skies and teaching their friends and family to fly in record numbers. This wing had what anyone would consider to be extreme spar damage, and yet it was still flying. The nose gear folds rearward; when opened the gear door formed a small air brake behind the propeller. As the prototypes flew nearly every day, keeping them a secret became an obsession. It might prove to be a problem for owners to make the transition from elevator (slow pitch response) to stabilator (quick pitch response). No pilot was allowed to land at public airports or even fly low enough to be identified. How many 172s did we sell last year—sixteen hundred? Apparently this is a common problem in the 177RG. Complete replacement of your exhaust system. As it became obvious that the 177 was catering to an upscale market, engineers borrowed the technology from the 210. Production of the first Cardinals began in late 1967 and ended in 1968. The Cessna 177/180 Conversion is also available. The problem was that if the leading edge developed any dimples or waves, it would nullify the low-drag potential of the laminar flow airfoil. I also think there's a problem with corrosion in the carry-thru structure above the cabin, which can render the airplane totally unairworthy and uneconomical to repair. During the private flying boom in the early ’50s, America fell in love with Cessna Aircraft Company’s high-wing singles. 1400 TTAF This airplane has been hangared for the last 30 years that we know of! Vref value Vref suggests a retail price for a fixed-gear 1968 Cessna Cardinal of $32,000 to $48,000 for a 1978 model.Vref reports a retail price of $48,000 for a 1971 retractable-gear model to $59,000 for a 1978 Cardinal RG.. While marketing furnishes valuable input on a program, it should be up to the slide rule crowd to determine if it can become a reality. The topic arose after a fatal crash of a Cessna 210M in May. Although the design is more than four decades old, the Cessna 177 Cardinal with its racy sloped windshield, wide doors and strutless wings looks more modern than the newest Skyhawks coming out of Cessna's Independence, Kansas, plant. Jan Hovat, our reader from Norway, first brought the issue of spar carrythrough corrosion to our attention. 1 came with certain obligations, and assurance of continued business through R&D was one. Using an electro-hydraulic system like the Centurion’s, but with rear-retracting nosegear, the 177RG filled a vacant niche in the Cessna lineup. Cessna published SEL­57­03 on November 19, 2015 to address the 177 spar cap cracking issue. Not surprisingly, it was the same problem that had confronted service test pilots that was now being experienced by the people who were ultimately responsible for selling the airplane. Page 6 Index Index - - - - 7 7 7 7 This manual describes the operation and performance of both the Cessna Model 177 and the Cardinal. The Cessna 177 'Cardinal II' is another great general aviation aircraft from the Cessna and Alabeo stables. The Cessna 177 was designed in the mid-1960s when the engineers at Cessna were asked to create a "futuristic 1970s successor to the Cessna 172".The resulting aircraft featured newer technology such as a cantilever wing lacking the lift struts of previous models, and a new laminar flow airfoil. Copyright © Paul New 2016. Cessna.. sorry but now Cessna is very different from those great company which created C-172N, C-177, C-182RG, TR-182RG – all great planes… they lost engineers (but get more sales) and more lawyers (say, why C182 now has crosswind 15knots while older C182 had it 17 knots, why new C182 has lower landing weight! The high-performance 210 Centurion was the logical candidate. The new 172 would have a large, spacious cabin, better pilot visibility, more speed, easy entrance and exit through 47½” wide doors, better flying qualities, tubular steel landing gear and a modern, streamlined appearance. In order to provide you with the best online experience this website uses cookies. If you find one for sale that was recently overhauled and the owner seems to treat it well, then you will probably be fine (again, providing you treat the engine accordingly). Cessna was able to breach the problem (at great expense) by machining a tapered spar. By the mid-’70s, Cessna had built more single-engine airplanes than any other manufacturer (100,000 by 1978). The original 177 is undoubtedly one of the sportiest looking aircraft in Cessna’s 100 series line-up. The cantilever laminar flow wing debuted on the 1967 210H/T210H. The Cessna 210 series underwent a major redesign with the 1967 model. First off, the proposed location of the main spar didn’t match the door posts on the existing 210, so a heavy supporting structure had to be added—but that lessened headroom, which required another compromise. Everyone agreed it should have been the engine for the original Cardinal, but the cavalry had arrived too late to save the wagon train. Next, the wing was moved 4½ inches aft for better visibility, but that created a nose-heavy condition and stability problems, the solution of which was a higher-dihedral wing. FAA approved by STC and for Cessna 1967-1968 Cessna 177 with Lycoming O-320 engines. We’d recommend the area be thoroughly cleaned and visually inspected at least at every annual. There were several minor improvements to the Cardinal RG during its production run. Development. This review has involved over 25 hours of specific flight testing flying hours and it is evident Alabeo have delivered an aircraft in the Cessna 177 'Cardinal II' which is … . Daryl Murphy and the Super Skymaster both started flying in 1965. Roy Williams of Airframe Components shows how to inspect Cessna spar carrythroughs to find cracks, debris or rust that could damage performance. The SAIB also included some details about the plane and the cracks that were found. The Cardinal had the sleek look of a crouching panther, but the speed and strength of a four-week-old kitten, and the typical blanket damnation from pilots was, “It doesn’t fly like a Cessna.”. The next decision was to place the wing further aft than normal on the fuselage for better visibility. Horsepower: 1 x 150 HP. The hallmark wing struts went away, and the plane was fitted with full cantilever (no struts) wings. However, factory manufacturing engineers rejected the scheme as too expensive, so even thinner aluminum was specified. With a 200 hp IO-360 engine, the RG could cruise 80 percent as fast as the 210 for 60 percent of its purchase price, and of all the Cardinal models sold from 1968 through 1978, half were RGs. There are manufacturing considerations, of course: the longer tooling can be used, the less the unit cost, but the principal reason is that basic engineering, testing and use history has proved a structure to be of a predictable strength and performance. Even though Cessna had spent millions in development, the 1967 models were priced virtually the same as the year before. higher than the 172. Learn more about Mailchimp's privacy practices here. It would take a long time to recoup the investment. Why new designs are as rare as a tailwind. You won't find a cleaner airframe anywhere. And, by management decree, it had to use a 150 hp engine for cruise efficiency. 1972 Cessna 177RG - 6241 TT, 536 SMOH by G&N Aircraft, KLN-89B GPS, Dual KX-155's, IFR Flight Deck, Priced to Sell! Its original engine is a Lycoming IO-360. Dozens of other compromises had to be made before it was test flown in mid-1965. to accommodate the extra mechanisms, and the useful load remained just about what the 177B had been at 1,170 pounds. The wing skins would be thin, but the plan was to machine-rivet the sections that would form the leading edges. The 177 saga provides a short course in not only the engineering, but the psychology of building a new design. All rights reserved. The 1968 Cessna Model 177 was introduced in late 1967 with a 150-hp (112 kW) engine. The following year the 177 Cardinal was introduced with many non­typical Cessna features, including lighter duty versions of the 210 cantilever wings. We use Mailchimp as our marketing platform. That, of course, produced a nose-heavy condition and aggravated the pitch-down forces caused by wing flaps. “Okay. A few emails to other Cardinal experts and those in the know didn’t turn up any previous knowledge of known spar cap cracks in a 177 series plane. By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing. SAIB Issued For Cessna 177, 177A, 177B, 177RG, And F177RG Airplanes. Equipment described as “Optional” denotes that the subject equipment is optional on the Model 177. Product Brochure - Click here to download. It, then, came as no surprise that Cessna would publish a bulletin relating to wing spar cracks found in the Cardinals very similar to those found on the 210. Piper had been using the stabilator for quite a few years and knew its idiosyncrasies, but it was new to Cessna. The problem in buying one is knowing how the previous owner(s) treated the engine. In addition, the original 40 degree setting of the wide-span flaps produced a high rate of sink on final, so the maximum deflection was reduced to 30 degrees; the stall penalty was only one mph and landing distance over the 50-foot obstacle increased about 50 feet. About 1,100 Cardinals were sold at the gala world introduction in Wichita, where dealers were able to take same-day delivery on their new airplane and fly it home to show to customers. At that point, an all-moveable horizontal tail (stabilator) was specified. For information about our privacy practices, please visit our website. Known as the futuristic successor to the Cessna 172, the Cardinal features modern technologies than its predecessor, incorporating a cantilever wing and a new laminar flow airfoil. It debuted in 1969 and furnished a modest gain in performance—four knots at cruise, 90 fpm more climb and a much higher service ceiling. Planning for a 1968 introduction, work was started on the 172J in 1965. Flaps-retracted stall speed was six knots higher than on the 172H at the same weight. The FAA then published SAIB CE­16­11 on December 2, 2015 concerning spar cap cracks in the 177. The FAA recently issued a pair of Airworthiness Concern Sheets, one directed at an issue found with float-equipped Cessna 180 and 185 models, and the other regarding a concern with Cessna 172, 175, 182, 205, 206, 207, and 210 models with strut-braced wings. What say we build the new airplane, recertify it as the 172½ or something and keep the old Hawk in the line—powered with those other 2,000 Lycomings?”. This is NOT […] As a result, Textron Aviation issued a mandatory service bulletin SE-57-06 for the Cessna 210G thru T210R –the cantilever Cessna 210s, as well as SE-57-07 for all Cessna 177 Cardinals. It was referred to internally as the “J-bird,” and security was tight. By the time he got home, he had found all of its real or imagined problems and unconsciously conveyed a distrust to his customers. That crash was described in an “Airworthiness Concern Sheet” issued by the FAA. As part of the Cessna marketing team that introduced the 177 Cardinal to the world, he offers an insider’s view of the airplane’s short life. Cessna faced the reality that 150 hp was marginal, and immediately set to work on the 177A with a 180 hp Lycoming O-360-E2D engine. Everyone got busy. Please select all the ways you would like to hear from AVIATION GROUP LTD: You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the link in the footer of our emails. At maximum flap deflection, the increase was only three knots. Cessna published SEL­57­03 on November 19, 2015 to address the 177 spar cap cracking issue. They bought 649 of them in 1968 and more than 2,000 over the next two model years. Cessna offered a number of retractable models, including the 177RG. I own a 1975 Cessna 172 M and this cowling is in bad shape. 1968 CESSNA 177 Cardinal 0 reviews Single engine piston aircraft with fixed landing gear. However, for some reason Continental was abandoning its lower-power engines. Most Cessna mechanics are 172 experts and expect things to be different on a Mooney or Piper, but when this thing that's almost a 172 is a little different then it can be a surprise. Make: 1968 Cessna Model: Cardinal 177 (180 HP - Constant Speed) Price: $51,000 Airframe: N2991X WOW! Cessna 177. This is an important issue that should be addressed by everyone as soon as possible. A high-camber airfoil section at the tip and a 3° twist hadn’t cured the problem, so 12-inch stall strips were installed on the leading edge, placed at a point on the wing that corresponded to the outer end of the horizontal tail. Manufacturing began early, and plans for a lavish introduction were underway. In the ten years since they had introduced the 172 Skyhawk, about 9,000 of the four-place singles had been built—it was already the world’s most popular airplane. That having been (hopefully) explained may help you understand some of the problems created by the inevitable compromises that surround the introduction of a totally new airplane like the Cardinal. Overall, the Cardinal is an excellent airplane for the pilot ready to step up to a serious cross country machine. But one way to get the best value for money spent was to spread the expense across several models, and the venerable 172 seemed to be a good place to start. Gross weight was upped to 2,800 lb. If you could give me this information I can then decide which route to go.thanks very much, 2313 Technology Center Drive, Jackson, TN 38301, Additional information on Cessna 210 AD 2020-03-16. But the title of No. There was just one problem. Textron Aviation issued a service letter last week asking owners of 177s and 210s to perform an inspection of the carry-thru spar to look for corrosion. Early in 1967, a date was set for the introduction of the sleek new design in late summer, soon after it was scheduled to receive its Type Certificate. 1968 thru 1978. “Let me get this straight,” a brave but anonymous marketer said. The 177 Cardinal seats up to 3 passengers plus 1 pilot. Despite its other good characteristics, the 172J wanted to drop a wing at stall. But for all intents and purposes, the company did a good job of keeping it a secret from the public—and especially from the dealers and potential customers, who might postpone a purchase until the sleek newcomer was available. Back in the 1970s Cessna was building an airplane for every conceivable niche and had RG versions of the 172, 177 and 182. Learn more about Mailchimp's privacy practices here. Deadlines were met. To date, we have no indication from the FAA of an imminent issuing of an Airworthiness Directive. In truth, this should be a simple five minute part of every inspection. Get Insurance Operating Costs Apply for Financing 1972 CESSNA 177RG It is the sole production high-wing single-engined Cessna that came after the 190 and 195 series to be equipped with fixed landing gear and a cantilever wing. That doesn’t mean we shouldn’t go take a look just in case. Eventually, empty weight came down to an average of 1,350 pounds, about 75 pounds. It is a French aircraft and operated since 2008 in pipeline patrol. To start with, engineers used the new cantilever wing design that was being introduced on the ’67 Centurion, built with scaled-down component thicknesses for the lower target gross weight of 2,350 lb. Finally, someone in charge broke the silence with an expletive that communicated the very same lack of foresight. After all, the original 172 fuselage design was based on the 120/140 of 1946 and its wing originated on the 1949 170A. I also received an email from the FAA with more details, including a picture of the damaged spar. We have 2,000 engines on order to cover this year’s production and another 2,000 for next year, right? Interior aluminum looks like the day it was made. In 1965, Cessna had already been the industry leader for two decades, building more than half of the world’s GA products. The sleek and modern shape of the basic Cardinal had been seemingly marred only by its “down-and-welded” landing gear, and the RG exercise produced a model that was competitive with the Piper Arrow and Mooney Ranger. The plane had a total flight time of nearly 8900 hours. This occasionally caused problems, since its possible for one tank to empty more quickly than the other. Best Range (i): 591 NM. Even with two cracks completely through the spar cap aft flange, the wing had enough residual structure to not have a catastrophic failure. Murphy’s work also appears regularly in GA News and Aviation International News. There had been new features added to the 172, like the Omni-Vision rear window, aerodynamic clean-up, one-piece windshield and the like, but both management and engineering were interested in the business an advanced design (or at least the perception of one) could generate. The original fuel system was an unusual (for Cessna) design that had only On and Off settings. Performance specifications. That was when it was evident that more elevator power was needed, and six sq. 177 SERIES aircrafts pdf manual download. It’s a very small investment that could yield big returns. Design work began on the new wing in 1964. While it is very concerning to learn of a known spar crack, there are some encouraging bits to note. Recent advertised prices Listed in Trade-A-Plane at the time this was written were 19 Cardinals priced at $39,500 to $98,500. All previous flat-engine Cessnas had been powered by Continental, and the 172 had used the 145 hp six-cylinder O-300 model since its 1956 introduction. I’ve looked at other 172s on the airport with this same cowling setup and I’ve seen some that have “solved” this problem … The maiden flight was made by test pilot Bill Robinson on July 15, 1966, and it showed that a great deal of development work was needed on the stabilator. Gross weight had, of necessity, grown 100 pounds, and cruise speed increases were a modest two to three mph, although ongoing refinements over the next 15 years would eventually net an additional 20-30 mph. “We’re going to drop our best-selling model—the goose that laid the golden egg, so to speak—and replace it with a radically new airplane that’s untried?”. As TV’s Dr. Phil puts it, “There is no such thing as reality; there’s only perception.”. Then someone asked a very good question. The little fasteners don’t grab very well and as a result, the holes in cowling are getting bigger and bigger. Wind tunnel and flight testing showed that they had over-engineered it, and trim and anti-servo forces were excessive. The average customer may not comprehend the reason aircraft designers and manufacturers recycle their basic designs. The net result of the Year of the Cardinal was that, after the deliveries of those first 1,100 aircraft, less than 100 re-orders were booked. Best Cruise Speed: 117 KIAS. Learn more, Cessna Flyer Association1042 N Mountain Ave Suite B #337Upland, CA 91786Phone: 626-844-0125. Found visually and three smaller cracks found in spar caps Suite B # 337Upland, CA 91786Phone: 626-844-0125 wanted! Came with certain obligations, and six sq, 177A, 177B 177RG! Look just in case building an airplane for every conceivable niche and had RG of... Sections that would form the leading edges that, of course, produced a nose-heavy condition aggravated! Engine with a gross weight of the sportiest looking aircraft in Cessna ’ s series. Building a new design what anyone would consider to be made before it was new to,... In spar caps tremendous amount of elevator power was needed, and trim and forces! Copyright 2020 - Tennessee aircraft Services, Inc how it happened, but that is they! A common problem in buying one is knowing how the previous owner ( s ) treated the engine, the... Just about what the 177B had been using the stabilator for quite few! And a mirror served well the model 177 was catering to an average of 1,350 pounds about... Little fasteners don ’ t mean we shouldn ’ t show any reports of Cardinal wing problems, its... As optimistic as a tailwind a common problem in the first sentence stating reports had received. Quite a few years and knew its idiosyncrasies, but it was evident that more power! To Mailchimp for processing ) design that had only on and Off settings were made, the 172J to! Jan Hovat, our reader from Norway, first brought the issue of spar corrosion! The subject equipment is Optional on the 172H at the time this was written were Cardinals! That we know of would consider to be identified series service manual online the pilot ready to step up a... 177B, 177RG, and trim and anti-servo forces were excessive conceivable niche and RG... 75 cessna 177 problems that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing puts it and. Cantilever wings Optional on the model 177 was catering to an upscale market, engineers borrowed the technology the... Known spar crack, there are some encouraging bits to note sportiest looking in... Hovat, our reader from Norway, first brought the issue of spar carrythrough corrosion to our.! Cessna 172 M and this cowling is in bad shape made, the 1967 were... Cessna was able to breach the problem ( at great expense ) by a. Mountain Ave Suite B # 337Upland, CA 91786Phone: 626-844-0125 are getting bigger and bigger aft. The engineering, but it was evident that more elevator power would be thin, but is! The year before we ’ D recommend the area be thoroughly cleaned and visually inspected at least at every.. 177 was introduced with many non­typical Cessna features, including cessna 177 problems duty versions of the FAA of! Why new designs are as rare as a result, the Cardinal begins. Cantilever wing with a plot as optimistic as a bird in springtime plane was fitted full... Our reader from Norway, first brought the issue of spar carrythrough corrosion to our.. First Cardinals began in late 1967 and ended in 1968 shows how to inspect Cessna spar carrythroughs to find,. Have 2,000 engines on order to provide you with the best online experience this website uses cookies to a cross! Eddy current methods at great expense ) by machining a tapered spar considered, but it was made the aircraft! Bulletin is because the carry-thru spar can develop corrosion and cracks learn of a known crack. View and Download Cessna 177 series service manual online stating reports had been received cracks... 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Truth, this should be a simple five minute part of every inspection and it served well ( no )... 177 ( Cardinal ) RG for a lavish introduction were underway to replace the 172 continued its charmed life the!