The four screening modalities were a reference management software program (EndNote), Paper, a web-based systematic review workflow platform (ReGroup) and a mobile screening application (Screen2Go). To compensate for multiple comparisons, we used a sequential Bonferroni correction  to adjust a pre-specified significance level of 5%. There are two types of screening 1: Screening the title and abstract of search results The searches are sensitive it means you will get lots of noise and irrelevant results. Whilst previous studies have assessed the effect of experience on the accuracy of data extraction , there is no empirical evidence regarding the performance of non-expert groups in citation screening or the optimal approaches to support their contributions. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. Initial screening stage. Amer J Psychol. We used a chi-squared test  to compare completion rates in each of the four modalities. Screening sensitivity and specificity were analysed in a complete case analysis using a chi-squared test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test according to screening modality and compared to a final set of included citations selected by expert review authors. Locate studies 7. PLoS Med. Various types of software can be used to store citations and do the screening: A PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses) diagram is used to show the steps involved in the review process, as well as recording the number of articles excluded at each stage. Privacy All participants were emailed with details of how to access their randomised screening modality and a one-page summary (refer to Additional file 1) of the systematic review protocol. Participants in the ReGroup modality demonstrated the highest median sensitivity and the lowest specificity. 1947, 18: 50-60. Covidence is an online systematic review management tool that allows for independent title/abstract screening, full text screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Do you remember why we excluded that one?”). 10.2307/1412159. The review team worked with a librarian specialized in systematic reviews to construct search strategies for MEDLINE and Embase (see Supplementary material for search strategy). Paper, printed with titles and abstracts in a list and students highlighted relevant articles. Differences between Paper and EndNote (p =0.689, significance level =0.05) and Screen2Go and EndNote (sensitivity p =0.064, significance level =0.025) were non-significant.The highest sensitivities and specificities observed in any single participant were 86.7% and 99.8%, respectively. A key step in the process of systematic review is citation screening, which involves manual review of study report titles and abstracts to identify potentially eligible articles for inclusion in the review . Because the magnitude of this correction differs for each comparison, we report the effective required significance level in addition to the p value that was obtained. 2012, Washington: National Academies Press, 2011, Available from: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2011/Finding-What-Works-in-Health-Care-Standards-for-Systematic-Reviews/Standards.aspx, Higgins JPT, Green S: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intereventions, Version 5.1.0 [Updated March 2011]. The use of appropriate tools is therefore important. The continuing exponential growth in published biomedical research presents a daunting challenge for clinicians and others involved in health care . No participant identified all 14 articles selected for inclusion in the review. 10.1080/01621459.1952.10483441. Secondly, participants were given very little guidance in the content area of the review, other than a one-page review protocol with inclusion criteria. Participants were randomised 1:1:1:1 to one of the four study arms according to the concealed randomisation schedule, as they responded to the invitation email. We performed a pilot study of citation screening by medical students using four screening methods and compared students’ performance to experienced review authors. Although it is designed for use with systematic reviews, its utility translates fairly well to some other evidence synthesis methods, like scoping reviews. A resource for identifying tools to support systematic reviews. There are two stages to screening and selecting results to be included in the review. Google Scholar. JE conceived the study, participated in its coordination and design and assisted in drafting the manuscript. Medical students were randomly allocated to title and abstract screening using one of the four modalities and required to screen 650 citations from a single systematic review update. Horton J, Vandermeer B, Hartling L, Tjosvold L, Klassen TP, Buscemi N: Systematic review data extraction: cross-sectional study showed that experience did not increase accuracy. Citation screening is time-consuming yet a crucial aspect of the systematic review process, since failure to identify relevant studies can jeopardise the validity of a review. 1954, 25 (3): 579-586. The Other folder serves to keep items not part of the systematic review but could be used for other things (e.g., example systematic reviews or articles to go in the background section). Within-group median final sensitivity ranged from 46.7% to 66.7% (Figure 2a) and median screening specificity ranged from 93.2% to 97.4% (Figure 2b). Screening is an elimination process that is done through the review of article titles and abstracts to determine if the study described meets any of the exclusion criteria. The eligibility screening step of a systematic review or systematic map (which may also be referred to as ‘study selection’, ‘evidence selection’ or ‘inclusion screening’) involves the application of eligibility criteria that determine which of the primary research studies identified in searches are relevant for answering the review or map question; and the use of a systematic screening process for applying … This may lead to efficiency gains and is consistent with the efforts to broaden the involvement of stakeholders in the production and use of evidence synthesis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. J Clin Epidemiol. PubMed Central Perspect Clin Res. Step 2: Full-text screening These results may therefore not be generalisable to other forms of review activity, such as full-text review or data extraction or to other groups of potential screeners, such as affected individuals and families. Screening burden varied from 5.3% to 10.8% (Figure 2c). Stat Med. Covidence. Screen2Go captured objective timing information but included safeguards to discard timings when it was unclear if the device was being used for screening or not. The semi-automation of title and abstract screening: a retrospective exploration of ways to leverage Abstrackr's relevance predictions in systematic and rapid reviews. J Am Stat Assoc. The systematic review process consists of several steps: after a systematic search for the relevant literature, the publications retrieved are screened and the relevant ones selected. Covidence is an online systematic review program developed by, and for, systematic reviewers.It can import citations from reference managers like EndNote, facilitate the screening of abstracts and full-text, populate risk of bias tables, assist with data extraction, and export to all common formats. This was similar across the four screening groups although analysis of this outcome is limited by differences in measurement technique. 2011, Clavisi O, Turner T, Thomas J, Cavedon L: Development of a Web Based Software Tool to Improve Efficiency and User Experience of Systematic Reviews. The centre line in each box is the median value. Overall, student performance was highly variable and below that of experienced review authors. Future work in this area may assist in investigating ways to optimise the performance of medical students, such as engaging and scalable training, incentives for quality and analytical approaches to deriving the most value from participants’ screening decisions. A set of citations retrieved from a search conducted for the purpose of updating a single Cochrane systematic review, ‘hypothermia for traumatic brain injury’ , was used as the citation dataset. Login details were emailed to participants randomised to ReGroup, who then simply needed to click on a web link and could immediately commence screening. View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 32. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC VJSI. The numbers of students correctly selecting each study ranged from 1 (2%, for Smith 2012) to 53 (91%, for Harris 2009). Study participants were asked to screen the full citation set and, for each citation, decide whether it should be included or excluded from the review using a one-step process. Kashim RM, Newton P, Ojo O. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening: A Systematic Review on Patients ‘ Non-Attendance. It is increasingly difficult for health care decision-makers to find and appraise research evidence, leading to lost opportunities to translate research investment into health care practice improvement  and reducing their utility for clinicians and policymakers. The objectives of the Title and Abstract Screening and Evaluation in Systematic Reviews (TASER) trial were to provide preliminary data on the accuracy of medical student title and abstract screening and on the effect of screening modality on screening accuracy and efficiency. BMC Med Res Methodol. Response to the invitation email and completion of citation screening implied participant consent. 2011, The Cochrane Collaboration, Available from: http://www.cochrane-handbook.org. Whiskers represent the minimum and maximum values and boxes delimit quartile ranges. There are several potential reasons for the modest and variable overall performance of medical students’ ability to select relevant articles in this study, when compared to the review authors’ decisions. Screen2Go was undergoing beta testing during the study and required students to download two applications: an application to manage the test user installation process and the Screen2Go application itself. We restricted the scope of our study to title and abstract screening using a uniform approach to the whole set of citations as this is the most common approach to citation screening. If the Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference between groups, then pairwise comparisons were not performed. To explore the feasibility of engaging students in citation screening, we compared the performance of student screeners against expert judgments for a single review. The review protocol is registered in PROSPERO ... One reviewer screened the search results based on title and abstract. Spearman’s rho for rank correlation between final sensitivity and total screening times showed a weak positive correlation (rho =0.342) not significantly different from 0 (p =0.452). All students had received some training in the development of critical appraisal skills within the first 2 years of their study but did not have any previous experience in undertaking systematic reviews. EPPI-Reviewer 4 is software for all types of literature review, including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, 'narrative' reviews and meta-ethnographies. The use of ReGroup, a web-based systematic review platform, was associated with improved final sensitivity and lower screening sensitivity. The DTA Review Proposal Form (RPF) is … Part of the Cochrane Interactive Learning course on Conducting an Intervention Review, this module explains how to select studies to include in a review and methods for collecting data. Article This is followed by data extraction and analysis as well as an appraisal of the review’s results. Title/abstract & full-text review The Systematic Review Process Versions are provided in several formats: 1) either combining title and abstract screening together, or separately as title then abstract level assessments; 2) for systematic mapping or systematic review, depending on which method is used; 3) in live, editable HTML format for web-based editing, or in .Rhtml format for those comfortable with basic coding in R. Rayyan is a free online tool that anyone can use for screening and coding of studies in a Systematic Review. Having only one reviewer is a risk-of-bias indicator for systematic reviews, and best practice methodology requires a multiple-reviewer approach to decrease risk of bias in the review. The Cochrane Library. Six hundred fifty citations were obtained from the date of last search from 6 April 2009 until 12 May 2012. 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